Ivette Perfecto, Ph.D.
Ph.D. Natural Resources, 1989, University of Michigan
M.S. Ecology, 1982, University of Michigan
B.S. Biology, 1977, Universidad Sagrado Coran, Puerto Rico
Ivette Perfecto is the George W. Pack Professor of Ecology, Natural Resources and Environment. Her research focuses on biodiversity and arthropod-mediated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, primarily in the tropics. She also works on spatial ecology of the coffee agroecosystem and is interested more broadly on the links between small-scale sustainable agriculture, biodiversity and food sovereignty. She teaches General Ecology (Environ 281), Our Common Future (a course on globalization) (Environ 270), Food Land and Society (Environ 318) and Field Ecology (SNRE 556). Her most recent book is Nature’s Matrix: Linking Agriculture, Conservation and Food Sovereignty.
More specifically we are investigating how local level multi-species interactions generate autonomous pest control in agroecosystems using coffee agroforests as a model system. We have established a 45-hectare plot in a shaded organic coffee plantation in Chiapas, Mexico, and are conducting research on the interactions between ants, their mutualistic scale insects, the natural enemies of the scale and a phorid fly that parasitizes the ant. In collaboration with Luis Garcia, from ECOSUR-San Cristobal (Mexico), we are developing table and computer games that use our knowledge of the complex ecological interactions among insects in coffee farms to teach farmers and students the ecological basis of autonomous pest control.
Another research project examines how local and landscape level factors affect diversity and ecosystem services (pollination and pest control) in urban gardens in Southeast Michigan. In collaboration with Lesli Hoey (Urban Planning) and John Vandemeer (EEB), this project also examines the spatial distribution of vegetable gardens in Ann Arbor how public policies may affect the spatial patterns of gardens.
More general interests include the role of the agricultural matrix in the conservation of biodiversity, food sovereignty and political ecology in the Global South, especially Latin America,
Currently Funded Projects:
NSF-OPUS – The ecology of the coffee agroecosystem:
The research of myself and my colleagues for the past 20 years has been concentrated on the intersection between biodiversity and agricultural landscapes, in particular those dominated by coffee production in Mesoamerica. With the support from this grant I and Prof. Vandermeer are writing a book that provides a synthesis of what we have learned over this period about ecological theory using coffee as a model system. Methodologically we are using a dialectical/complexity approach to synthesize the wealth of information that has been generated by us, our students and others, focusing on complex ecological interactions at various scales. During the synthesis process we are intentionally examing issues of historicity, interconnections, heterogeneity, and integration of levels to generate a new understanding of ecological complexity within agricultural landscapes.
NSF-DIGG (for Dissertation work of David Gonthier) – Causes and consequences of biodiversity in coffee agriculture:
Although it is well established that multiple species improve the functioning of ecosystems relative to individual species, there are few examples in systems where the actions of biodiversity produce benefits of immediate significance to human kind. Agriculture provides an ideal arena to study biodiversity because it is an eminent driver of biodiversity loss, yet the services of species in forms of pest control, nutrient cycling, and pollination translate into benefits to productivity and sustainability. Biodiversity experiments also often lack realistic levels of food web complexity, which can have important effects on how biodiversity operates. In this project, laboratory experiments will be used to investigate the importance of two forms of food web complexity (ant-herbivore mutualism and herbivore diversity) on the efficiency of multiple predator species at controlling herbivores (pests) of coffee a tropical crop. Predator diversity and food web complexity are being manipulated and herbivore pest impacts on coffee damage and growth is being measured.
M-Cube - Urban Gardens: constrained auto-generation of spatial pattern and consequences for ecosystem services (in collaboration with John Vandermeer and Lesli Hoey):
Urban gardens represent a vibrant and growing element of the global food system, throughout the world. While they take a variety of specific forms, they generally are small-scale, organic and frequently coordinated by some form of community organization. Despite the fact that there is little coordinated effort to plan these gardens at a macro level, it is evident that they do not occur at random in most urban landscapes, but rather seem to form loose clusters. It is reasonable to expect that secondary consequences will emerge from this spatial pattern. In this research project we aim to (1) determine the underlying ecological/sociological/economic dynamics that generate spatial patterns of urban farms in general, (2) examine the ecological dynamics that determine the dynamics of pest species in the gardens, and (3) examine the consequences of this pattern and these dynamics for ecosystem function, specifically with respect to autonomous biological control function.
In my courses I like to challenge students to think for themselves. Most of my courses have a strong Latin American flavor because I am from Latin America (Puerto Rico) and I conduct research in Latin America (Mexico, Mesoamerica and Brazil). Most of my courses are interdisciplinary and are taught from a social justice perspective. I teach undergraduate courses in sustainable development and globalization, and the agroecology and political ecology of the food system, a graduate course in field ecology and graduate seminars on topics that range from conservation in fragmented habitats to biodiversity in agricultural systems.
In the fall term I teach Our Common Future: The Impacts of Globalization (ENVIRON 270 – not offer in fall 2011), General Ecology (ENVIRON/EEB 281), Field Ecology (SNRE 556), and graduate reading seminars. In the winter I teach Food, Land and Society (NRE 318) which has a three week field component at the end of the course in Cuba or Mexico.
Recent Publications 2012-2013 (* = students):
Belasen*, A., E. Burkett*, A. Injaian*, K, Li*, D. Allen, and I. Perfecto. In press. Effect of subcanopy on habitat selection in the blue-spotted salamander (Ambystoma laterale-jeffersonianum unisexual complex). Copeia
Cunningham, S. A., S.J. Attwood, K.S. Bawa, T.G. Benton, L.M., Broadhurst, R.K. Didham, S. McIntyre, I. Perfecto, M.J. Samsways, T. Tscharntke, J. Vandermeer, M.A. Villard, A.G. Young and D.B. Lindenmayer. To close the yield-gap while saving biodiversity will require multiple locally relevant strategies. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 173: 20-27.
Marin*, L. and I. Perfecto. 2013. Spider diversity in agroecosystems: the influence of agricultural intensification and aggressive ants. Environmental Entomology 42: 204-213.
Perfecto, I. and J. Vandermeer. 2013. Ant assemblages on a coffee farm: spatial mosaic versus shifting patchwork. Environmental Entomology 42: 38-48.
Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2013. Complex traditions: Intersecting theoretic frameworks in agroecological research. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37: 76-89.
Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2012. Syndromes of production in agriculture: Prospects for socio-ecological regime change. Ecology and Society 17 (4): 39. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04813-170439
Perfecto, I. and J. Vandmermeer. 2012. Separación o integración para la conservación de biodiversidad: la ideología detrás del debate “land-sharing versus land-sparing.” Ecosistemas 21: 180-191.
Jha*, S., D. Allen*, I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer. 2012. Mutualism and population regulation: mechanism matters. PLos One 7(8): e43510. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043510.
Hsieh*, H. and I. Perfecto. 2012. Ecological impacts of phorid parasitoids on ant communities. Psyche, doi:10.1155/2012/380474
Hsieh*, S., H. Liere*, M. E. Jiménez Soto* and I. Perfecto. 2012. Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones. Ecology and Evolution 2(9): 2181-2191. doi: 10.1002/ece3.322
Tacharntke, T., Y. Clogh, L. Jackson, I. Motzke, I. Perfecto, J. Vandermeer, T. C. Wanger and A. Whitbread. 2012. Global food security, biodiversity conservation and the future of agricultural intensification. Biological Conservation 151: 53-59
Mates*, S., C. Badgley and I. Perfecto. 2012. Parasitoid wasp diversity in apple orchards along a pest management gradient. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 156: 82-88.
Fisher, J., P. Batáry, K. Bawa, L. Brussard, M. H. Chappell, Y. Clough, G. C. Daily, J. Dorrough, T. Hartel, L. E. Jackson, A. M. Klein, C. Kremen, T. Kaumerle, D. Lindenmayer, H. A. Mooney, I. Perfecto, S. M. Philpott, T. Tscharntke, J. Vandermeeer, T. C. Wagner and H. von Wehrden. 2011. Conservation: Limits of land sparing. Science 334: 593.