School of Natural Resources and Environment

SNRE Faculty

Associate Research Scientist

I investigate processes at the ecosystem level using statistical modelling. My main interest in research is to understand ecological processes and population dynamics of aquatic organisms at the ecosystem level, in particular those aspects that are relevant to resource management. Recently I have been investigating spatial and temporal scales needed to study the spatial distribution of fish abundance and obtain indices of abundance of fish populations in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Since fish, as other aquatic organisms, cannot be directly observed large scale population studies must rely on analysis of data from scientific surveys or commercial operations. The analysis of this information requires specialized statistical modeling. Currently my focus is in the Great Lakes.

Professor

Arun Agrawal is a Professor at the School of Natural Resources & Environment at the University of Michigan. His research and teaching emphasize the politics of international development, institutional change, and environmental conservation. He has written critically on indigenous knowledge, community-based conservation, common property, population and resources, and environmental identities. His recent interests include adaptation to climate change, urban adaptation, REDD+, and the decentralization of environmental governance.

Professor

Teaching emphasis is on the application of ecological knowledge to species conservation and ecosystem management. Research interests center on the influence of human activities on the condition of rivers and their watersheds, including the effects of land use on stream health, assessment of variation in flow regime, and estimation of nutrient loads and budgets. Additional, collaborative activities are directed at the translation of aquatic science into useful products for management, conservation, and restoration of running waters. 

Associate Research Scientist, Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research

Dr. Beletsky has been with the SNRE Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research (joint Institute between University of Michigan and NOAA) since 1995. His research expertise lies in the hydrodynamics of lakes and coupling lake physics with biological processes. Since the beginning of his career in limnology in Russia, he has worked on hydrodynamics and climatology of several large lakes in Europe (Ladoga and Onega), North America (Lake Champlain, Lake St. Clair, Lakes Michigan, Erie, Ontario and Huron), and the Baltic Sea. His major scientific interest is climatology and long-term changes of circulation patterns in the Great Lakes

Associate Research Scientist

I am an ecologist who combines field and geospatial data and methods to study the pattern and process of ecological systems and biodiversity. I also strive to build bridges between science and social science. What motivates my work is recognition of the complexity of the relationship of humans and ecological systems. These relationships and their emergent properties can be studied at different spatial scales and levels of biological organization. Knowledge gained from field studies, geospatial data, and analysis can be used to build models that help scientists and to understand the implications of human actions on the social and natural systems of which they are a part.

Professor

Rosina’s research interests lie at the interface of science and policy--principally on issues related to climate change adaptation and mitigation at the national and international levels.  She teaches courses on Climate Policy.  She has been named the new Chair of the Global Environment Facility’s Science and Technical Advisory Panel, and serves on President Obama's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST).  Rosina is an Adaptation Fellow at the World Bank, leads the Adaptation Chapter for the Congressionally-mandated U.S. National Climate assessment, and is review editor for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. She serves on the Boards of several Foundations and NGOs and has lectured on every continent. Bierbaum served in both the executive and legislative branches of Government for two decades--as the Senate-confirmed director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy’s Environment Division, and in multiple capacities at the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment.  Rosina was Dean of SNRE from 2001-2011, during which time she oversaw the creation of a new undergraduate Program in the Environment, five new dual Master’s degrees across campus, and tripled interdisciplinary research in the School.

Assistant Professor

As a broadly trained agroecologist, I use interdisciplinary research approaches to understand how different agrifood systems impact ecological and social processes. My ecological research focuses on soil nitrogen and carbon biogeochemical cycles, agroecosystem nutrient management, and legume nitrogen fixation. Current projects include assessing land reform in the Brazilian Cerrado for socioecological resilience, and research in the U.S. centered on improving nitrogen retention in farm fields.

Professor

Research interests focus on land use change and its effects on ecosystems and on human vulnerability. This work connects a computer-based simulation (e.g., agent-based modeling) of land-use-change processes with GIS and remote sensing based data on historical patterns of landscape change and social surveys. We are working to couple these models with GIS-based data and other models to evaluate consequences of change. We are also working to understand the ways in which land-use decisions are made. Collaborative research investigate the effects of spatial and social neighborhoods on the physical and social risks on human health.

Professor Emeritus

Instrumental in establishing the School's Environmental Justice Program that focuses on the differential impact of environmental contaminants on people of color and low-income communities; Founder and Director of the Environmental Justice Initiative for research and retrieval/dissemination conferences and policy briefings. Played a critical role in the development and implementation of the Environmental Justice Certificate Program. Research and conferences include both a domestic and international foci, particularly on climate justice. Teaching portfolio includes: Introduction to Environmental Justice (Environ. 222), Conception, Practical Issues and Dilemmas in Environmental Justice (SNRE 582), and the Masters Project/NRE 701.

Professor and Director, Cooperative Institute for Limnology & Ecosystems Research; Director of the University of Michigan Water Center

Dr. Burton is a Professor in the School of Natural Resources & Environment and also in the Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, and Director of both the Water Center and the Cooperative Institute of Limnology and Ecosystems Research at the University of Michigan.  He has an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Roskilde (Denmark).  His research on ecological risk assessment and aquatic ecosystem stressors has taken him to all seven continents with Visiting Scientist positions in New Zealand, Italy and Portugal.  His research has focused on sediment and stormwater contaminants and understanding bioavailability processes, effects and ecological risk at multiple trophic levels, and ranking stressor importance in human dominated watersheds.  He is Editor-in-Chief of the international journal, Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, past president of the Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, and has served on numerous national and international panels with over 160 peer-reviewed publications.  

Assistant Professor

Bilal Butt is an assistant professor at the School of Natural Resources and Environment and a faculty affiliate of the African Studies Center. Bilal is a people-environment geographer with regional specialization in sub-Saharan Africa and technical expertise in geospatial technologies (GPS, GIS & Remote Sensing), ecological monitoring and social-scientific appraisals.

His general research interests lie at the intersection of the natural and social sciences to answer questions of how people and wildlife are coping with, and adapting to changing climates, livelihoods and ecologies in arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa.  His current projects investigate: (1) the spatiality of livelihood strategies (resource access and utilization) among pastoral peoples under regimes of increasing climatic variability and uncertainty; (2) the nature of the relationships between wildlife and livestock in dry land pastoral ecosystems of East Africa; (3) violent and non-violent conflicts over natural resources, and; (4) how mobile information technologies such as cell phones influence natural resource management strategies among pastoral peoples in dry lands.

Associate Professor

I use theory, experiments, and observational studies to address questions aimed at understanding how human alteration of the environment impacts the biotic diversity of communities and, in turn, how this loss can affect fluxes of energy and matter that are required to sustain life on the planet. I focus on this topic because I believe that global loss of biodiversity ranks among the most important and dramatic environmental problems in modern history.

Associate Professor

Bill studies the linkages among carbon, nutrient, and water cycling and energy flows and transformations in terrestrial ecosystems and human-environment systems.  He is interested in using our current understanding of ecosystems to explore creative, new understanding of the two-way interactions in human-environment systems.  He works at scales from field plots to landscapes, collaborating with other researchers and students to integrate understanding and build models for synthesis.  The goal of this research is to contribute to the developing field of sustainability science using an approach that grows out of ecosystem science. 

Associate Professor

We face diminishing material and energy abundance while we address the climate disruption caused by our past consumption. This bio-physical reality is inevitable. What is not inevitable, however, is the nature of our response. Yet so often we are faced with, not reasonable, but infuriatingly unreasonable behavior. Why is this and what can we do to help people become positively engaged?  In short, how can we bring out the best in people despite their facing difficult and irreversible environmental circumstances?

Professor of Practice

My teaching and advising interests address energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation as well as broader aspects of sustainable mobility and energy use. A main interest is the "cars vs. climate" problem, which I address in a holistic manner that examines the technolgical, economic, behavioral and policy factors that shape oil demand and GHG emissions from motor vehicles and fuels that power them. Such understanding is crucial as society seeks globally viable solutions for sustainable transportation. 

Professor and Director of Michigan Sea Grant

I am a Professor of Natural Resources, as well as Director of the Michigan Sea Grant Program, funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. My research focuses on aquatic animals and their interactions with the environment. This is expressed in two major research areas: sustainable aquaculture and its role in feeding the world, and the ecology of natural fish populations, particularly in the Great Lakes region. As aquaculture is the most important means of producing seafood today, its environmental impacts are important, and we need to understand and remediate them in order to more sustainably produce aquaculture crops. My research focuses on the interaction between aquaculture practices and environmental impacts and seeks to find solutions for more sustainable production in the future. Secondly, human impacts on natural systems have resulted in dramatic declines in many fish species throughout the world, particularly in the Great Lakes region. My research focus on fish ecology is on the management, restoration, and rehabilitation of wild populations that have been inevitably influenced by human disturbance. My teaching is in Aquatic Sciences, in particular, courses in Ecology of Fishes and Sustainable Aquaculture. In addition, I supervise research of a large number of graduate students in Aquatic Sciences.

Assistant Research Scientist

Associate Professor

Research in the lab focuses on conservation biology issues and on the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases. Major research projects address questions regarding the impact of diseases on wildlife populations and the environmental causes leading to disease emergence. Other projects examine how habitat fragmentation and global climate change result in species extinction.

Professor

Tom Gladwin is the Max McGraw Professor of Sustainable Enterprise, and he holds a joint appointment with the Ross School of Business.

Professor Gladwin's research focuses on the intersection of environmentalism and globalism in relation to the behavior of industrial corporations. He has published extensively-more than 125 publications-on the theme that the challenges of environmental sustainability and economic globalization are probably the two most profound forces shaping human destiny. This theme is a vital and challenging one, and one to which Gladwin speaks provocatively. At the core of Gladwin's research is the idea that the reintegration of humanity with nature is necessary if organizational science is to support ecologically and socially sustainable development.

Professor

Bob Grese serves as Director of the Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum. My teaching and research involve ecologically-based landscape design and management that respects the cultural and natural history of a region. I am particularly interested in the restoration and on-going management of urban wilds and the role such lands can play in re-connecting children and families with nature. I have long been fascinated by the work of early designers such as Jens Jensen and Ossian Cole Simonds who borrowed from the native landscape in their work. There is much to be learned about their designs and their fate over time. I have a growing interest in green roofs and other low impact design strategies.

Associate Professor

Professor Hardin teaches courses in both SNRE and the Department of Anthropology. Her areas of interest and scientific study include human/wildlife interactions, and social and environmental change related to tourism, logging, conservation and hunting in the forests of Central Africa. Recent projects focus on the increasingly intertwined practices of health and environmental management in southern and eastern Africa. She also studies historical and ethnographic aspects of concessionary politics involving corporations, NGOs, and local communities, particularly in Africa.

Professor and Director of the Erb Institute

Andy Hoffman is the Holcim (US) Professor of Sustainable Enterprise; a position that holds joint appointments at the School of Natural Resources & Environment and the Ross School of Business. He also serves as Director of the Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise.  His research focuses on corporate strategies that address environmental and social issues.  His disciplinary background lies in the areas of organizational behavior, institutional change, negotiations and change management.  He has published more than 90 articles nine books, two of which have been translated into five different languages. Prior to academics, he worked for the US Environmental Protection Agency, Metcalf & Eddy, the Amoco Corporation, and T&T Construction and Design, Inc. In 2004, he was a Senior Fellow with the Meridian Institute.

Teaching interests include competitive environmental strategy, strategies for sustainable development, organizational behavior, negotiations, green construction, and organizational change

Associate Professor

My specialty, ecological design, is premised in the integration of art and science. I aim to create a built environment that is ecologically functional, contextually meaningful and personally engaging. I am a licensed professional landscape architect and have worked as a research ecologist. I presently do translational research that allows me to bring scientific discovery into design applications. Teaching includes ecological planting design studio, sustainable site design, urban agriculture, and civil engineering for designers. Research focuses on how to design urban areas to promote well-being and health of humans and the natural systems in which we are embedded.

As an ecological designer I place aesthetics—the visceral and psychological appeal of designed spaces, on equal footing with ecosystem considerations because there is no better way to engage personal stewardship than to elicit a protection response.

Assistant Professor

My major research interests focus on the current challenges that plant communities are facing in the context of global change, i.e. climate change, invasive species, and landscape fragmentation. These challenges are interconnected as they form the novel environment under which plants are growing. The fact that forest communities are highly dependent on recruitment dynamics makes the study of early demographic stages critical for understanding the impact of global change on the natural ecosystems around us.

Associate Research Scientist & Director of Academic Programs, Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research

Dr. Johengen is an Associate Research Scientist and Associate Director of the Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research (CILER), which is a NOAA Joint Institute program at the University of Michigan with the NOAA-Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory serving as the host lab. CILER's research activities are focused around five themes including: Climate and Large-Lake Dynamics, Coastal and Nearshore Processes, Lare-Lake Ecosystem Structure and Function, Remote Sensing, and Marine Environmental Engineering. Dr. Johengen's individual research interests focus on nutrient cycling and lower food-web dynamics in the Great Lakes, controlling the introduction of invasive species, and development of in situ water quality sensors and observing systems.

Assistant research scientist

Dr. Johnson conducts research on sustainable energy and materials systems, with a cross-cutting aim of improving life cycle assessment methods. He employs systems approaches to quantify the environmental impacts of major changes to the power grid, such as the integration of variable renewable generation and large scale energy storage. Dr. Johnson's research aims to inform environmental policy, including studies that evaluate policy design considerations for Renewable Portfolio Standards and State Implementation Plans for carbon dioxide limits to existing power plants.

Associate Professor, Landscape Architecture

My work focuses upon the issues of inclusive design and social justice and how they impact both design processes and the physical places we help to create. Through my teaching, research and writing, I work to clarify how issues pertaining to landscape construction, technology, sustainability, process and form can and should be impacted by a deeper understanding of how the decisions we make as design and planning professionals impact the ability of people to take part in the life of vibrant, healthy landscapes, be they urban, rural, or wild.

Research Scientist Emeritus

I conduct research on the Great Lakes and connecting tributaries including: work with yellow perch larvae in Lake Michigan, work with a remotely operated vehicle on offshore reefs in Lake Michigan to collect evidence of lake trout reproduction, work with exotic species, especially round and tubenose gobies and zebra/quagga mussels, and work with toxic substances, burbot, deepwater sculpin, and larval fish distribution in the Muskegon River.

Professor

Some environments bring out the best in people; many do not. That constitutes a puzzle that takes many directions, including: (1) the importance of the natural environment; (2) ways to make environments both understandable and interesting; (3) approaches to meaningful participation in environmental decision-making; (4) exploration of ways to conceptualize and assess effectiveness and well-being.

Rachel Kaplan is the Samuel Trask Dana Professor of Environment and Behavior.

Professor and Director, Center for Sustainable Systems

Dr. Keoleian co-founded and serves as director of the Center for Sustainable Systems. His research focuses on the development and application of life cycle models and metrics to enhance the sustainability of products and technology. He has pioneered new methods in life cycle design, life cycle optimization of product replacement, life cycle cost analysis and life cycle based sustainability assessments ranging from energy analysis and carbon footprints to social indicators.

Professor

Research Interests:

My broad research interests are related to the human dimensions of global change and social studies of science. I am particularly interested in understanding: (a) the intersection between development and climate, especially concerning the relationship between anti-poverty programs and risk management (b) the use of technoscientific information, especially seasonal climate (El Nino forecasting) in building adaptive capacity to climate variability and change (drought planning, water management, and agriculture) in the U.S. (Great Lakes) and Latin America (Brazil, Mexico and Chile); (c) the impact of technocratic decisionmaking on issues of democracy and equity; (d) the co-production of science and policy and the role of technocrats as decisionmakers; (e) the role of popular participation in urban environmental policymaking and policymaker/client interactions; (f)U.S.-Mexico border region environmental policymaking especially regarding transboundary water conflict, environmental health, a common use of shared natural resources.

Professor

Teaching and research in evolutionary and behavioral ecology; resource control and reproductive success in vertebrates, including humans; integration of evolutionary theory and resource management; resources and reproductive variance; reproductive and resource tradeoffs for modern women.

Professor

Tom Lyon is the Dow Professor of Sustainable Science, Technology and Commerce. His research and teaching interests include environmental information disclosure and greenwash; corporate environmental strategy; environmental NGOs; voluntary environmental agreements; government regulation of business; industrial organization; and energy and the environment.

Assistant Professor

Robyn Meeks is an environmental and development economist. Currently, much of her work focuses on understanding individual and household behavioral responses to the introduction of various environmental technologies and infrastructure in developing countries. Dr. Meeks is an assistant professor with appointments in both the School of Natural Resources and Environment (SNRE) and the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (LSA). She teaches within the Environmental Policy and Planning field of study in SNRE and the Program in the Environment in LSA.

Associate Professor

Shelie Miller’s research interests center around the life cycle impacts of emerging energy systems.  Recent work focuses on the noncarbon aspects of biofuels, such as disruptions to the nitrogen cycle and changes in land use.  Interests also include advancing Life Cycle Assessment methods to analyze dynamic and emerging systems, such as hydraulic fracturing in the US and electricity grids in developing countries.  She teaches Environmental Systems Analysis at the graduate level and Ecological Issues at the undergraduate level.

Dean and Professor

Marie Lynn Miranda became dean of the School of Natural Resources and Environment, effective Jan. 1, 2012. She also holds an appointment as professor in SNRE and in the Department of Pediatrics. 

Professor

Teaching and research interests are focused on environmental justice, public opinion and the environment, and influences on environmental policy making. A founder of the Environmental Justice Program at the University of Michigan. Current research includes understanding the causes of disproportionate environmental burdens in people of color communities and the role that environmental factors play in accounting for racial and socioeconomic disparities in health.

Professor and Associate Dean for Research

Michael Moore's teaching involves courses in natural resource and environmental economics. His research interests include analysis of federal water policy and water allocation conflicts between environmental and consumptive uses of river systems; economic aspects of biodiversity and species conservation; and economics of environmental markets, including markets for green products (such as green electricity) and markets for pollution permits (such as the federal SO2 allowance market).

Professor

Joan Iverson Nassauer is Professor of Landscape Architecture in the School of Natural Resources and Environment. She was named Fellow by the American Society of Landscape Architects (1992), Fellow of the Council of Educators in Landscape Architecture (2007), and Distinguished Practitioner of Landscape Ecology in the US (1998) and Distinguished Scholar (2007) by the International Association of Landscape Ecology. She focuses on the cultural sustainability of ecological design in human-dominated landscapes.  Her research offers knowledge and strategies for basing ecological design on cultural insight, strong science, and creative engagement with policy. Her teaching and recent projects apply this approach to brownfields, vacant property, exurban sprawl, and agricultural landscapes.

Assistant Professor

Josh Newell joined SNRE in Fall 2010. His research grapples with how to define, measure, model, and assess urban sustainability, particularly from the context of resource consumption.  This research emphasis stems from the conviction that to mitigate (and adapt to) climate change and to address global ecological crises, we need to fundamentally reshape and redesign our urban areas--where more than half of the world’s population already lives, works, and consumes. He will teach courses on integrated assessment, sustainable cities and communities, and sustainability science and society. 

Professor

Ivette Perfecto is the George W. Pack Professor of Ecology, Natural Resources and Environment. Her research focuses on biodiversity and arthropod-mediated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, primarily in the tropics. She also works on spatial ecology of the coffee agroecosystem and is interested more broadly on the links between small-scale sustainable agriculture, biodiversity and food sovereignty. She teaches General Ecology (Environ 281), Our Common Future (a course on globalization) (Environ 270), Food Land and Society (Environ 318) and Field Ecology (SNRE 556). Her most recent book is Nature’s Matrix: Linking Agriculture, Conservation and Food Sovereignty.

Associate Professor

Research focus: Issues of social and ecological sustainability with a primary focus on principles for sustainability, overconsumption and sufficiency, the language and ethics of resource use, localization and the transition out of fossil fuels.

Assistant Research Scientist

I am an aquatic ecologist with specific focus on fluvial ecosystems and benthic invertebrate ecology. I am interested in assessing and understanding the effects of human landscape alteration on river ecosystems. A large part of my work has been to develop landscape-based models of riverine condition using biological indicators and regression-based models that predict expected condition for rivers of Michigan and Wisconsin.

Professor and Director of the Graham Environmental Sustainability Institute

Research interests include the effects of natural and anthropogenic stresses on Great Lakes and marine ecosystems, with a focus on the use of models and integrated assessments in transferring knowledge to the decision-making process. Teaching interests include the roles of conveying uncertainty, peer review, stakeholder input, interpreting trends, prediction, scale, and government interaction in developing and applying Integrated Scientific Assessments.

Professor, Environmental Justice Field of Studies Coordinator, Past Chair of the Environment and Technology Section of the American Sociological Association

My research interests include urban agriculture, food access, and food insecurity; institutional diversity; green jobs; social movement analysis; environmental justice; leisure and natural resource use; poverty; and race, gender, and ethnic relations. My current research includes an assessment of food access in Michigan and other Midwestern states.  Other recent research activities have included an analysis of the green jobs sector, and four national studies of racial and gender diversity in the environmental field.

Professor and Director of Program in the Environment

Paul Webb holds a joint appointment with the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and he serves as Director of the Program in the Environment. Teaching includes Ecological Issues and mainly independent studies and projects, especially with undergraduates on aquatic restoration. Research includes physiological ecology and functional morphology of aquatic vertebrates, primarily fishes. Research seeks to identify and understand fundamental principles of energetics and form and function, which in turn affect distributions of fishes and their populations and assemblages. These interests are currently focusing on how physical factors shape shorelines and hence shoreline fish communities, affecting management and restoration. Another area of research concerns factors that affect fish assemblages in coastal marshes. Much of these researches are done in collaboration with faculty in the engineering school.

Professor

Teaching involves various aspects of aquatic  ecology. Research interests include ecology of rivers and lakes, watershed management, community dynamics and population regulation, trout stream food webs, behavioral adaptations of aquatic insects, fish-invertebrate interactions, and fisheries management in North America and SE Asia.

Associate Professor

Julia Wondolleck has spent over 20 years researching the emergence and functioning of inter-organizational and community-based collaborative processes in ecosystem-scale resource management, processes that often arise in response to natural and/or social system crises. Her research focus is environmental decision-making and the structure of policy and administrative processes that promote the sustainability of ecological and human systems in the face of diverse yet legitimate interests, scientific complexity, and often conflicting and ambiguous legal direction.

Assistant Professor

Ming Xu joined SNRE in Fall 2010. He has a courtesy appointment with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Michigan. He is also a core faculty member in the Center for Sustainable Systems. He is interested in developing and applying interdisciplinary system-based analytical tools to understand complex sustainability issues. Current focus of research includes "big data" mining and visualization, environmental implications of emerging bioenergy and clean vehicle technologies, and environmental impacts of international trade.

Professor

My research focuses on how political processes and organizations make environmental policy choices, and how new collaborative structures can be developed to encourage more effective decision making. I am particularly interested in landscape-scale conservation and sustainable natural resource management, and how decision making institutions can be encouraged to take on an ecosystem-scale perspective. Of particular interest is policy involving biological diversity, public lands and energy.

Burton V. Barnes Collegiate Professor of Ecology

Don Zak holds a joint appointment in the department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Literature, Science, and Arts. His research investigates links between the composition and function of soil microbial communities and the influence of microbial activity on ecosystem-level processes. This work draws on ecology, microbiology, and biochemistry and is focused at several scales of understanding, ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem scale. Current research centers on understanding the link between plant and microbial activity within terrestrial ecosystems, and the influence climate change may have on these dynamics. Teaching includes courses in soil ecology and ecosystem ecology.

Assistant Research Scientist, Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research

Hongyan Zhang, Ph.D., is an assistant research scientist at the NOAA-funded Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research (CILER), which is located in Ann Arbor, Mich., near the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.

Associate Professor

Primary research interests focus on testing and enhancing human behavior, decision, and persuasion theories in environmental education and communication (especially risk) contexts applying structural equation modeling, meta-analysis, and case studies. Most current studies focus on evaluating environmental education programs.